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(dob - )
Year of Discovery: 1951
His Ideas Greatly Improved Mammogram's Effectiveness
Charles Gros, a French Radiologist (physician specializing in x-rays), was a precise and thorough researcher. His dedication to detail led to the development of the first x-ray machine exclusively designed to perform mammograms (a special x-ray of the breast). He and his co-workers meticulously compared images of healthy and cancerous breast tissue, searching for significant differences. Their hard work paid off. Based on their findings, Gros developed his revolutionary diagnostic technology, called the CGR Senographe. His x-ray device had several advantages over what was currently being used. First, Gros used a molybdenum tube instead of a tungsten tube. This meant Gros' device could operate with a much lower level of radiation. Gros' device also offered images with greater contrast, improving the ability to see fine tissue variations. The built-in compression device-though disliked by patients-narrowed the scatter range of the radiation, reduced shadowing caused by involuntary motion, and resulted in a clearer diagnostic image.
Gros' Senographe became commercially available in the late 1960s. Its high resolution images allowed radiologists to distinguish important differences in cell configurations. This ability ultimately led to analysis of the differences between benign and malignant microcalcifications of the breast. Microcalcifications are tiny bits of calcium that have formed in the breast tissue. These often appear as small white spots, lines, or clusters on a mammogram, and their presence may or may not be associated with breast cancer.
Gros, a founder of the European Association of Radiology (EAR), described the need for collaborative medicine when treating breast disease and stressed the inter-relationship of pathology, clinical examination, histology (the study of the microscopic anatomy of tissue and cells) and radiology. His groundbreaking work formed the basis for breast cancer screening and treatment programs around the world.
Introduction by April Ingram
Table of ContentsIntroduction
Links to More Information About the Scientist
Key Experiment or Research
Quotes by the Scientist
Quotes About the Scientist
Fun Trivia About The Science
The Science Behind the Discovery
Science Discovery Timeline
Recommended Books About the Science
Books by the Scientist
Books About the Scientist
Major Academic Papers
Links to Science and Related Information on the Subject
Links to More About the Scientist & the Science
The practice of mammography, by Daniël J. Dronkers, discusses Gros:
Medicine and Women: 1950 - present, discusses Gros' research:
Next Step Fitness, Inc. article on the history of mammograms:
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The Science Behind the Discovery
Links to Information on the Science